Imagine that you become very angry with Smith and sever three of his fingers, harming him severely. After a hospital stay and surgery, Smith decides to take a trip to Mars. We no longer use spaceships for this long trip. Instead, Smith hops in a teletransporter (TT). If Smith presses the red button, he will lose consciousness momentarily, the (TT) will then record the exact states of all of Smith’s cells while destroying them. The information is transmitted to a Replicator on Mars which then creates, out of new matter, a brain and body exactly like Smith’s. Typically, all of Smith’s memories, psychological states, dispositions, and bodily states would be preserved. This time, it does not happen. The Replicator does not replicate the memories of Smith, but produces a completely different set of memories, psychological dispositions, tastes, desires, and so on. But the Replicator does preserve all other bodily states, including Smith’s missing fingers.
On every contemporary view, the personal identity of Smith is not preserved in Smith*. Smith* is a numercially different person.
How many people did you harm? Did you harm Smith and Smith*? I think the answer is no. Compare Mars Harm Two.
Everything is the same as in Mars Harm, except that Smith never decides to go to Mars. He never enters the teletransporter, he is never replicated, his cells are never destroyed. You impose the same number of harms in Mars Harm Two, viz., severing his three fingers, as you do in Mars Harm. Are you morally worse in Mars Harm than you are in Mars Harm Two? I say no. You are not morally worse in Mar’s Harm than you are in Mars Harm Two. You caused the same number and severity of harms in each case.
Suppose that for each replication of Smith, we add yet another harm that Jones caused. It is easy to see how to create a moral monster. Take the harm and replciate it indefinitely. For each replication, Jones is the cause. Jones can easily go from inflicting a serious harm on Smith to a great moral monster. All we need is replication. But it seems clear that replication does not make a moral monster of Jones.
I offer Mars Harm and Mars Harm Two as instructive about the number of harms caused in cases where a mother causes three fingers of her fetus to become detached, the fetus is “teletransported” into the child who is left with three fingers missing.